Diagnosis and Treatment of Ovarian Cysts

Diagnosis and Treatment of Ovarian Cysts

Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled swellings that occur in the ovary. They may be as small as one centimeter and as big as ten centimeters. There can be one or more cysts on one ovary (unilateral), or cysts on both ovaries (bilateral). Ovarian cysts can develop before or after menopause, but they are most common in young women who are pregnant or intending to become pregnant. Ovarian cysts may be benign and non-cancerous in some cases (benign). In certain cases, however, they may be harmful to a woman's fertility or turn out to be cancerous. It is recommended that you obtain a gynaecologist’s diagnosis, medication, and consultation.

Ovarian Cysts and Cancer

Ovarian cysts do not often indicate the presence of ovarian cancer. The most common cause of ovarian cancer is ovarian cysts. The following are the women who are most likely to develop ovarian cancer:

  • Women who have had breast or gastrointestinal cancer in the past
  • Women with a family history of cancer, especially ovarian cancer, should be careful.
  • For women that have an ovarian cyst that is difficult. A complex cyst is described as one that has a nodule on the surface, solid areas, or several fluid-filled areas.
  • Women with ascites (fluid collection) in the abdomen or pelvis, as determined by imaging scans.

These categories may also include women who are not cancer survivors. Additional testing is recommended to determine the full extent of the patient's illness.

Ovarian Cysts and Cancer Diagnosis

Ovarian cysts can be detected in the following ways:

Pelvic Exam - A regular pelvic exam can assist in the identification of ovarian cysts. A pelvic exam, on the other hand, cannot offer a definitive diagnosis. Other screening approaches should also be followed.

Vaginal sonogram - This imaging test is carried out by inserting a transducer into the vaginal canal. A vaginal sonogram may be used to assess the cyst's size and whether it is fluid-filled or solid. It can also be used to confirm the cyst's size and position. The sonogram, however, cannot tell if the cyst is benign or malignant. Other screening approaches should also be followed.

Blood tests - A blood test can be performed on the patient to assess the amount of a protein called CA125, which may increase as a result of ovarian cancer. CA125 will rise due to other conditions such as pelvic or abdominal infection, pregnancy, and hepatitis, so blood tests cannot provide a conclusive diagnosis. Other screening approaches should also be followed.

Diagnostic Laparoscopy - Laparoscopic surgery is a form of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) that uses a small camera (a laparoscope) to look inside a patient's abdomen or pelvic organs. The operation helps the doctor to examine and extract the cyst completely. The surgery can now be performed with smaller incisions, less discomfort, and a quicker recovery time thanks to this modern surgical technique. This is the approach that offers the most accurate ovarian cyst diagnosis. If surgery is necessary, the doctor will perform a laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy.

Routine Testing and Guidelines

Women who have gone through menopause and have ovarian cysts are usually treated by their doctors with CA125 testing and ultrasound scans. Most tiny cysts (less than 5 cm in diameter) dissolve in three months, but an ultrasound scan every four months is recommended after that.

Ovarian Cysts Treatment

A lot of ovarian cysts go down on their own. The doctor may want to wait and observe the patient's condition at first. Patients that are premenopausal are first checked for symptoms. After six to eight weeks, a pelvic ultrasound is done again.

If the cyst does not expand or resolves on its own, surgery is typically not necessary. Every three to six months, postmenopausal patients may need to have an ultrasound and a CA125 examination.